White-fronted Brown Lemur
Vulnerable (IUCN Red List, 2020)
What they look like
White-fronted brown lemurs are a medium-sized primate that weigh a little less than 4½ lbs. They are sexually dichromatic. Adult males and females differ in their pelage coloration although not overall body size. Males are easily distinguished by their thick, prominent, white beards, bushy cheeks, and crown (as in the picture above). Females have similarly colored bodies, however their face, nose, chest, and shoulders are all dark gray. The fur of the head is also gray in females which is the most striking difference from males. Males are easy to tell apart from other similar species due to their characteristic white heads, but females can be difficult to distinguish from related species.
Where they live
This species can be found in tropical moist lowland and montane rain forest in northeastern Madagascar. They inhabit three national parks (Marojejy, Masoala, and Mananara-Nord) and two special reserves (Anjanaharibe-Sud and Nosy Mangabe).
What they eat
The lemurs of this species are largely fruit-eaters (and seed dispersers), but also frequently eat leaves, flowers, and bark. However, females are observed to eat more flowers than males during the dry season, when they are also more likely to give birth.
How they behave
White-fronted brown lemurs are cathemeral, meaning they are active both during the day and at night throughout the year. They generally locomote quadrupedally, with all four limbs. They are prone to leap frequently when traveling, especially when agitated. Group sizes range average 3 to 11 individuals with large groups more common in primary forest.
How they reproduce
Seasonal breeding typically occurs in June. Females are sexually receptive (estrus) for only a 24-hour period and give birth in October, after a gestation period of approximately 120 days. Mothers will typically carry offspring on their abdomens, and the infants are weaned at six to seven months of age.
What threats they face
This is the most hunted lemur species by people in Madagascar. Other major threats include habitat disturbance due to slash-and-burn agriculture, logging, and artisanal mining. Eulemur species in general also seem to be particularly susceptible to predation by birds of prey and the fossa—a large carnivorous mammal, related to the mongoose with qualities of a cat. Toxoplasmosis has been detected in this species in the wild.
White-fronted lemurs in Marojejy National Park and Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve
Although this species is one of the most abundant in Marojejy National Park and Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (ASSR), and regularly seen near Camp Indri, hunting has increased near the road which traverses ASSR.